Well-designed medical studies clearly show that destroying even small implants of endometriosis can improve fertility by as much as 50%. In a large Canadian study, the monthly pregnancy rate following surgical treatment of minimal endometriosis rose from 3% to 4.5%. Although this finding represented a 50% improvement in the patients’ monthly chance of pregnancy, it does not compare very favorably with IVF pregnancy rates, which average above 30% for a single treatment cycle. Nevertheless, because treatment of endometriosis at the time of surgery does improve pregnancy rates, most surgeons will do their best to destroy endometriosis at the time of laparoscopy by using either laser or coagulation techniques. In addition to improving fertility, surgery may often eliminate or improve symptoms of dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain.

Ovarian cysts that contain endometriotic tissue may grow quite large. They are often called “chocolate cysts” because of the dark brown fluid found within them, although endometriosis cysts are more correctly referred to as endometriomas. If left untreated, these growths may destroy part or all of the normal ovarian tissue, including the eggs. Endometriomas must be surgically removed, usually via laparoscopy, as medical therapy is ineffective in the treatment of endometriomas. The ultimate choice of whether to perform a laparoscopy or laparotomy depends on the operative findings and the skill and experience of the surgeon.